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Glossary

Art Deco   A style of design associated with the 1925 Exposition des Arts Decoratifs in Paris. Its main features were a bold geometry and motifs derived from non-western architectural traditions such as the Egyptian, Assyrian and Pre-Columbian.
     
Art Nouveau   A style of design associated with the years around the turn of 19th and 20th Centuries. Its principal features were the use of organic motifs and the innovative use of new materials.
     
Ashlar   Smooth dressed horizontally coursed stone masonry.
     
Baroque   A European style of architecture which originated in 17th Century Italy. Free use of classical ornament and contrasting concave and convex forms characterise the style, which was revived in Britain in the Edwardian period.
     
City of Manchester Plan   Produced under the direction of R. Nicholls in 1945, the Plan was a comprehensive attempt to integrate the reconstruction of war-damaged areas and longer-term planning needs such as the development of motorised transport.
     
Deconstructivism   A style of architecture from the 1980s based on the application of post structuralist French Literary theory to architecture. Its principal theorist is the American architect Peter Eisenman.
     
Doric   A Greek order of architecture dating from 600 BC where motifs are a translation into stone of earlier timber construction. The Parthenon in Athens is an example of a Doric Temple.
     
Edwardian   Referring to the reign of King Edward VII (1901 - 1910), the term can generally be stretched to cover the 1890's up until the outbreak of World War 1 in 1914.
     
Factory Records   An independent record label founded by Granada TV presenter Tony Wilson in the aftermath of punk. The success of bands such as Joy Division and New Order led to the founding of the nightclub The Hacienda.
     
Georgian   A style of architecture associated with the reigns of King George I (1714 - 27) George II (1727 - 1760) George III (1760 - 1820) George IV (1820 - 1830). Its predominant features are the use of restrained classical ornament and proportions.
     
Gothic   A style of architecture derived from the ecclesiastical architecture of Medieval Europe. Featuring organic ornament, it can be identified by its use of the pointed arch. The style was revived in the 19th Century, in particular as the result of the writings of Augustus W.N. Pugin in the 1840s.
     
Hi Tech   A style of architecture associated with the 1970s. Its dramatic celebration of building technology, in particular the expression of servicing elements was derived from the work of the Archigram Group in the 1960s. In Britain its principal exponents are Norman Foster, Richard Rogers, Nicholas Grimshaw.
     
International Style   A term coined by Philip Johnson and Henry Russell-Hitchcock for an exhibition at the MOMA in New York. It defined modern architecture's characteristics as absence of ornament, purity of form and the use of the flat roof.
     
Ionic   A Greek order of architecture particularly associated with Greek territories in Asia Minor. The column, sometimes fluted, can be identified by its capital with pairs of scrolled volutes.
     
Mansard   A type of roof in which a steep pitch is used in the lower portion to provide an area of dormer windows. Derived from the name of the French architect Francois Mansart.
     
Misericord   A type of ledge used in Medieval choir stalls to provide relief for the priests during lengthy services. They often feature examples of subversive carving.
     
Modern   Referring to the 20th Century movement which rejected figurative and historical references in architecture. Characterised by simplicity of line, innovative use of materials, industrialised techniques, and new structural forms.
     
Neo-Classical   A reaction to Baroque or Rococo decorative excesses, archaeologically correct Classical forms are employed within a rational architectural system using pure geometry and resulting in solid and restrained buildings with little or no decoration.
     
New Cathedral Street   The principal urban design feature of the redevelopment of Manchester City Centre following the IRA bomb of 15 June 1996. It will connect St Ann's Church and the Royal Exchange with the Cathedral and the Corn Exchange.
     
Northern Quarter   An area of decayed industrial and commercial buildings designated for regeneration by Manchester City Council in 1994, to encourage commercial and residential development.
     
Palazzo   The Italian word to designate an urban residential building generally arranged around a courtyard. The facade and overhanging cornice were elements copied in the Manchester 'palazzo' warehouse.
     
Peterloo Massacre   On 16th August 1819 on St. Peter's Field the radical Henry Hunt addressed a crowd of over 30000 on electoral reform. The Manchester Yeomanry attempted to arrest Hunt on the hustings, leaving at least 11 members of the crowd dead and 600 injured. The Free Trade Hall stands on the site of this event.
     
Pevsner, Sir Nikolaus   A 20th century architectural historian, born in Germany. He is particularly associated with the recording of the Buildings of England by county.
     
Piano Nobile   An Italian term designating the first floor of a domestic building (generally above workshops or arcades on the ground floor). Characterised by larger windows and richer ornament.
     
Piranesian   Pertaining to the work of Giovanni Battista Piranesi, an 18th Century Italian engraver, archaeologist and architect. Etchings of vast and ruinous spaces are his most characteristic output.
     
Post-Industrial   Relating to the aesthetic use of industrial building technology and iconography, and the reuse of former industrial buildings.
     
Post Modern   Relating to architecture which abandoned the doctrines of the Modern movement. Often associated with the revival of enfeebled classical forms in 1980s, its first clear theoretical text was Robert Venturi's Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture of 1966.
     
Rationalism   A form of Modern Movement architecture associated with Italian exponents, most notably the Gruppo Sette including Giuseppe Terragni whose major work is the Casa del Fascio in Como of 1936.
     
Renaissance   Relating to the 'rebirth' of the architecture and the culture of classical antiquity in Italy during the 15th and 16th Centuries
     
Ruskin, John   The eminent 19th Century art critic notable for his championing of the works of J.M.W Turner and the Pre-Raphaelites. His most influential architectural works were The Seven Lamps of Architecture and The Stones of Venice.
     
Serlian   Pertaining to Sebastano Serlio and his Five Books of Architecture. Most usually relating to a 'Serlian' window (also 'Palladian' window) where a central arched window is flanked by two lower rectangular openings. This motif was, in turn, derived from the form of a Roman triumphal arch.
     
Spandrel   A panel spanning between two vertical elements, or across an arched opening in a wall
     
Victorian   Relating to the 19th Century, but specifically to the reign of Queen Victoria (1837 - 1901).
     
Vitrolite   An opaque coloured glass sheet material introduced in the 1930s.
     
Voussoirs   A fan shaped stone or brick, part of a number spanning an opening and typically forming an arch or flat opening.
     
Ziggurat   A name denoting a stepped pyramid as seen in the temple structures of Ancient Near Eastern and Pre-Columbian American civilisations.


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